What Is a Staph Infection?
Staph is the shortened name for Staphylococcus (staf-uh-low-KAH-kus), a type of bacteria. These can live harmlessly on many skin surfaces, especially around the nose, mouth, genitals, and anus. But when the skin is punctured or broken, staph bacteria can enter the wound and cause an infection.
The different types of staph bacteria can cause a variety of illnesses. For example, one kind of staph causes urinary tract infections.
But most staph infections are caused by the species Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Most of these skin infections are limited to a small area of skin, like folliculitis, boils, impetigo, and cellulitis. S. aureus can also release toxins (poisons) that may lead to illnesses like food poisoning or toxic shock syndrome.
How Do Staph Infections Spread?
Staph bacteria can spread through contaminated surfaces and from person to person. Kids can carry staph bacteria from one area of their body to another — or pass it to other people — via dirty hands or fingernails.
Staph infections can spread from person to person in group living situations (like college dorms). Usually this happens when people with skin infections share personal things like bed linens, towels, or clothing.
Warm, humid environments can contribute to staph infections, so excessive sweating can increase someone's chances of developing an infection. People with skin problems like burns or eczema may be more likely to get staph skin infections.
What Are the Signs & Symptoms of a Staph Skin Infection?
Staph skin infections show up in lots of different ways. Conditions often caused by S. aureus skin infections include:
- Folliculitis (fuh-lih-kyoo-LY-tus) is an infection of the hair follicles, the tiny pockets under the skin where hair shafts (strands) grow. In folliculitis, tiny white-headed pimples appear at the base of hair shafts, sometimes with a small red area around each pimple. This happens often where people shave or have irritated skin from rubbing against clothing.
- A furuncle (fyoor-UNK-ul), commonly known as a boil, is a swollen, red, painful lump in the skin, usually due to an infected hair follicle. The lump usually fills with pus, growing larger and more painful until it ruptures and drains. Furuncles often begin as folliculitis and then worsen. They most often appear on the face, neck, buttocks, armpits, and inner thighs, where small hairs can be irritated. A cluster of several furuncles is called a carbuncle (kar-BUNK-ul). Someone with a carbuncle may feel ill and and have a fever.
- Impetigo (im-puh-TYE-go) is a superficial skin infection that mostly happens in young children. Most impetigo infections affect the face, hands, or feet. It begins as a small blister or pimple, and then develops a honey-colored crust.
- Cellulitis (sell-yuh-LYE-tus) begins as a small area of redness, pain, swelling, and warmth on the skin, usually on the legs. As this area spreads, a child may feel feverish and ill.
- A stye is a red, painful bump on the eyelid. Kids with a stye will usually notice a red, warm, uncomfortable swelling near the edge of the eyelid.
- MRSA is a type of staph bacteria that's resistant to the antibiotics used treat staph infections. Although MRSA infections can be harder to treat, in most cases they heal with proper care. Most MRSA infections involve the skin.
- Scalded skin syndrome most often affects newborns and kids under age 5. It starts with a small staph skin infection, but the staph bacteria make a toxin that affects skin all over the body. The child has a fever, rash, and sometimes blisters. As blisters burst and the rash passes, the top layer of skin sheds and the skin surface becomes red and raw, like a burn. This serious illness affects the body in the same way as serious burns. It needs to be treated in a hospital. After treatment, most kids make a full recovery.
- Wound infections cause symptoms (redness, pain, swelling, and warmth) similar to those found in cellulitis. A person might have fever and feel sick in general. Pus or a cloudy fluid can drain from the wound and a yellow crust (like that in impetigo) can develop.
How Are Staph Infections Treated?
You can treat most small staph skin infections at home by:
- soaking the affected area in warm water or applying warm, moist washcloths. Use a cloth or towel only once when you soak or clean an area of infected skin. Then, wash them in soap and hot water and dry them fully in a clothes dryer.
- applying a heating pad or a hot water bottle to the skin for about 20 minutes, three or four times a day
- applying antibiotic ointment, if recommended by your doctor
- giving pain relievers like acetaminophen or ibuprofen to ease pain until the infection goes away. Follow the package directions on how much to give and how often.
- covering the skin with a clean dressing or bandage
A stye can be treated using warm compresses over the eye (with the eye closed) three or four times a day. Always use a clean washcloth each time. Occasionally, a stye will need a topical antibiotic.
Teens who get a staph infection on skin areas that are normally shaved should stop shaving until the infection clears up. If they do have to shave the area, they should use a clean disposable razor or clean the electric razor after each use.
Your doctor may prescribe an oral antibiotic for a staph skin infection. If so, give the antibiotic on schedule for as many days as the doctor directs. More serious staph infections might need to be treated in a hospital, and an abscess (or pocket of pus) that doesn't respond to home care might need to be drained.
To help prevent a staph infection from spreading to other parts of the body:
- Don't directly touch the infected skin.
- Keep the area covered whenever possible.
- Use a towel only once when you clean or dry the area. After using, wash the towel in hot water. Or use disposable towels.
How Long Does a Staph Infection Last?
How long it takes for a staph skin infection to heal depends on the type of infection and whether it's treated. A boil, for example, may take 10 to 20 days to heal without treatment, but treatment may speed up the healing process. Most styes go away on their own within several days.
Can We Prevent Staph Skin Infections?
Washing hands well and often is vital to preventing staph infections. It's also important to encourage kids to keep their skin clean with a daily bath or shower. If your child has a skin condition such as eczema that makes regular bathing difficult, ask your doctor for advice.
If someone in your family has a staph infection, don't share towels, sheets, or clothing until the infection has been fully treated.
When Should I Call the Doctor?
Call your doctor if:
- Skin infections seem to be passing from one family member to another, or if two or more family members have skin infections at the same time.
- You think your child has a serious wound that might be infected.
- A stye doesn't go away in a few days.
- A minor infection gets worse — for example, your child starts feeling feverish or ill, or the area spreads and gets very red and hot.